CyberDefenders: AzurePot

This Blue Team challenge was published on April 20, 2023, on You can access the challenge at Shoutout to Tyler Hudak for creating the challenge. I completed the challenge on the same day it was published. I got so hooked that I didn’t want to stop until I completed it.

I rated the challenge to be between Medium – Hard in difficulty. The tools I used were Autopsy, and Notepad++.

The scenario is a Linux honeypot was placed online in Azure and attackers exploited the machine using CVE-2021-41773 vulnerability.

  1. There is a script that runs every minute to do cleanup. What is the name of the file?
    • .r*****.**
    • The hint in this question is “script that runs every minute.” This tells us that the script runs on schedule and can be found in cron jobs or scheduled tasks.
    • In Autopsy, go to: vol6 > var > spool > cron > crontabs > root
  2. The script in the Q#1 terminates processes associated with two Bitcoin miner malware files. What is the name of the 1st malware file?
    • k******
    • The script we found in Q#1 tells us where the location of the file, and it is in the /root folder
    • Go to vol6 > root > .r*****.**
  3. The script in Q#1 changes the permissions for some files. What is their new permission?
    • 4**
    • We can use the same steps we took in Q#2
  4. What is the sha256 hash of the botnet agent file?
    • 0****************************************************************
    • Agent files or unexpected files are stored inside the /var directory in Linux and typically in another folder called /tmp
    • Go to vol6 > var > tmp > dk86 and extract the file by right-clicking and choose extract file
    • Open powershell in the location where you extracted the file and run: get-filehash -algorithm sha256 dk86
  5. What is the name of the botnet in Q#4?
    • T******
    • Use the hash you generated from Q#4 and search for it in VirusTotal
  6. What IP address matches the creation timestamp of the botnet agent file in Q#4?
    • 1**.***.**.**
    • First, let us look at the created time of the file in Q#4. Look back at the steps we took in Q#4 if needed
    • The agent file was most likely downloaded from the internet, so looking at the Apache access log makes sense. Go to vol6 > var > log > apache > access_log then extract the file
    • Open the access_log file using Notepad++, then search for the matching timestamp
  7. What URL did the attacker use to download the botnet agent?
    • h***://***.***.***.***:**/**-*******/******/*************/****
    • We know that the name of the botnet agent file is dk86. We can search the access_log for an entry with the agent filename, but you will not find any
    • Another Apache log that we saw in Q#6 was error_log. Let’s try and extract the file and search within for the filename
  8. What is the name of the file that the attacker downloaded to execute the malicious script and subsequently remove itself?
    • .i******
    • This one took a long time for me to find. I have no clue what file I was looking for, but the word “downloaded” at least tells me that the attacker would have used wget to download the file like what we saw in Q#7.
    • Since the botnet agent filename was found in the error_log, I am guessing that will be a good place to search for other file downloads. I used the option find all in current document so I don’t have to keep hitting the Return key to jump to the next find
    • I didn’t find the file using wget as filter, so another one that we can try is curl
    • Below is an interesting find. Looks like a base64 encoded string
    • Let’s put the entries together in CyberChef to decode them
  9. The attacker downloaded sh scripts. What are the names of these files?
    • 0_****.**, 0_*****.**, a*.**
    • Since the question is asking for specific sh scripts, we can search the logs for .sh files
    • We can now just manually search from the list of files with .sh extensions
  10. Two suspicious processes were running from a deleted directory. What are their PIDs.
    • 6***, 2****
    • This is the first time I’ve investigated using UAC. It is actually quite useful and powerful
    • Go to the live_response folder to access the files we will need to investigate: C:\Users\Your_UserName\Downloads\c81-hudaks-honeypot\uac\uac\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503.tar\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503\live_response\process\lsof_-nPl.txt
    • Open the file using Notepad++, and start looking for suspicious processes. What I noticed being suspicious were process names that contained the word deleted.
  11. What is the suspicious command line associated with the 2nd PID in Q#10?
    • s* .***.**
    • Take note of the 2nd PID and open the ps_-ef.txt file in the same location as Q#10
  12. UAC gathered some data from the second process in Q#10. What is the remote IP address and remote port that was used in the attack?
    • 1***.***.***.**:*****
    • This time we are going deeper into the folders to see details for each process. Again, remember the PID of the second process in Q#10. Go to C:\Users\Your_UserName\Downloads\c81-hudaks-honeypot\uac\uac\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503.tar\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503\live_response\process\proc\2****\environ.txt
    • Look for the values of REMOTE_ADDR and REMOTE_PORT
  13. Which user was responsible for executing the command in Q#11.
    • d*****
    • Look at the steps we took in Q#11
  14. Two suspicious shell processes were running from the /tmp folder. What are their PIDs?
    • 1****, 2****
    • Use the same path in Q#10, and this time filter the content with /tmp folder since the question is asking us for processes from the /tmp folder
    • You will see from the results that there are only two processes that are in /tmp folder
  15. What is the MAC address of the captured memory?
    • 00:**:**:**:**:**
    • For this question we should be using volatility and do some memory forensics, but I was feeling lazy to spun up and run volatility, so I thought of probably just looking in the UAC files.
    • I went to C:\Users\Your_UserName\Downloads\c81-hudaks-honeypot\uac\uac\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503.tar\uac-ApacheWebServer-linux-20211208202503\live_response\hardware\lshw.txt
    • Opened the file using Notepad++, scrolled down to the network information and found the MAC address
  16. From Bash history, the attacker downloaded an sh script. What is the name of the file?
    • u**.**
    • Same as Q#15, we should be doing memory forensics, but I returned to Autopsy and extracted the bash history file. Go to: vol 6 > home > azureuser >.bash_history
    • Search for a downloaded .sh script

I hope you enjoyed my post and that you always find these things helpful.

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Published by lightkunyagami

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  1. Two posts in a week?! What did I do to deserve this? Great write up. I did the Autopsy training long ago but it’s still Greek to me. 😂
    Thanks again!

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Oh my gosh!!! Tyler Hudak just commented on my blog!!!!!! I am a big follower of TrustedSec. I always read your blogs on your website. Your blog regarding Log4J Detection and Response was really helpful. I also follow Dave (@hackingdave) on Twitter and his “We hack health.”

      Liked by 1 person

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